NCBG North Carolina Botanical Garden

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Scientific Name: or show all plants or perform combination search
Plant Family:

Xyris caroliniana

Xyris caroliniana Walter

carolina yelloweyed grass, pineland yellow-eyed grass

Xyris caroliniana (Carolina Yelloweyed Grass)
image by Fleming, Gary P.
NCBG PLANT INDEX
ID_PLANT: XYCA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Xyris caroliniana
GENUS: Xyris
FAMILY: XYRIDA - Xyridaceae (Yellow-eyed Grass Family)

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES
INTRO: Scapose perennial from a clump of linear leaves, found in moist savannas and scrub oak sandhills.
STEMS: Stem minutely ridged or 2-ribbed, twisted.
LEAVES: Leaves basal, linear, to 20 in. long, spirally twisted and overlapping at the base, the outer ones short, scale-like and reddish-brown.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in a short, cone-like spike at top of stem, each bud concealed in a single yellowish to light-brown (with green center), scale-like bract. Typically, a single yellow or white, 3-petaled flower opens at a time, usually in afternoon.
FRUITS:
COMMENTS: The carolina yellow-eyed-grass is an interesting and easily identified wildflower present in moist sandy soils throughout the NC sandhills and low-country. Flowers in the Xyridaceae emerge from a cone-like structure perched at the top of a leafless stalk. It blooms in June and July. The perfect yellow flowers open in the afternoon with three petals and three stamens. Once pollinated, seeds mature within the tightly closed cone structure. When the cone is dry, it opens and releases the tiny seeds. X. Caroliniana can be distinguished from other Xyris species by the chestnut brown color at the base of the leaves.
HEIGHT: 8 -36 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate, Basal
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Jun-Jul
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x

BLOOM COLOR: Yellow to white
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Pine savannas, Sandhills
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE:
LIGHT EXPOSURE:
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
USDA Symbol: XYCA
USDA Common Name: Carolina Yelloweyed Grass
Native Status: L48 (N), PR (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, SC, TX, VA), USA+ (PR)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
WEAKLEY FLORA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Xyris caroliniana
COMMON NAME: Pineland Yellow-eyed Grass
SYNONYMY: [= C, FNA, GW, K, RAB, Va, WH3, X, Z; > X. flexuosa Muhlenberg ex Elliott - F, G, S; > X. pallescens (C. Mohr) Small - S]
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT: Dry to moist pine flatwoods,
COMMENTS: Moist savannas, scrub oak sandhills. Jun-Jul. Se. VA south to s. FL, west to se. TX, disjunct northward in s. NJ and in the West Indies (Cuba). White-petaled populations of X. caroliniana occurring in the East Gulf Coastal Plain need additional study.
RANGE MAP: Xyris caroliniana.png

Key to Map Symbols.

ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Xyridaceae C. Agardh 1823 (Yellow-eyed Grass Family)
SUMMARY: As recognized more narrowly (excluding Abolboda, Aratitiyopea, and Orectanthe into the Abolbodaceae), a family of 2 genera and about 300-325 species, nearly cosmopolitan (most diverse in tropical and subtropical regions, and especially South America).
REFERENCE: Kral in FNA (2000); Kral in Kubitzki (1998b).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Xyris Linnaeus 1753 (Yellow-eyed Grass)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 300-325 species, nearly cosmopolitan (most diverse in tropical and subtropical regions, and especially South America). This technical genus is known well by only a few botanists, and additional undescribed taxa are possible.
REFERENCE: Kral in FNA (2000); Ward (2007b)=V; Bridges & Orzell (2003)=X; Kral (1966a)=Z; Kral (1983b, 1999); Kral in Kubitzki (1998b). Key adapted from X, GW, and Z.
HERBARIUM RESOURCES
SERNEC: Find Xyris caroliniana in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Xyris caroliniana in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES
USDA: Find Xyris caroliniana in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Xyris caroliniana in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Xyris caroliniana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Xyris caroliniana

NCBG RECORD
ID IMAGE1: 33758
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 0
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-01-11

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