NCBG North Carolina Botanical Garden

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Scientific Name: or show all plants or perform combination search
Plant Family:

Xanthium strumarium

Xanthium strumarium L.

cocklebur, rough cocklebur

Xanthium strumarium (Cocklebur)
image by Sorrie, Bruce A.
NCBG PLANT INDEX
ID_PLANT: XAST
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Xanthium strumarium
GENUS: Xanthium
FAMILY: ASTERA - Asteraceae (Aster Family)

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES
INTRO: Erect to ascending annual of disturbed ground, roadsides, pastures, barnyards and beaches.
STEMS: Stems thick and ridged, branched, often reddish or speckled with purple, smooth or with hairs pressed to stem.
LEAVES: Leaves alternate (lowermost may be opposite), on long reddish-green petioles, triangular-oval to nearly round, 2–6 in. long, with 3–5 irregularly toothed lobes, green above and beneath, slightly rough above.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Composite flowers (heads) in clusters of 2-4 in leaf axils; heads rounded to cylindric and consisting of greenish-white, minute male or female disk florets interspersed with spines.
FRUITS: Fruit a spiny, cylindircal bur.
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 1-6 ft.

DURATION: Annual
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL
SYMMETRY: Mixed
BLOOM TIME: Jul-Nov
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Greenish-white
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Disturbed
NATIVE RANGE:

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE:
LIGHT EXPOSURE:
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
USDA Symbol: XAST
USDA Common Name: Rough Cocklebur
Native Status: L48 (N), HI (I), PR (N), VI (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UM, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY), USA+ (PR, VI), CAN (AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, ON, P
Duration: Annual
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FAC FAC FAC FAC FAC FACU FAC FAC FAC

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
WEAKLEY FLORA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Xanthium strumarium
COMMON NAME: Cocklebur
SYNONYMY: [= FNA, GW, Pa, Va, WH3; > X. strumarium var. glabratum (A.P. de Candolle) Cronquist - C, G, K, RAB, SE, W; > X. strumarium var. strumarium - RAB, misapplied; > X. strumarium var. canadense (P. Miller) Torrey & A. Gray - C, G, K, SE, W; > X. chinense P. Miller - F, Il; > X. echinatum Murray - F; > X. italicum Moretti - F, Il, WV; > X. oviforme Wallroth - F; > X. pensylvanicum Wallroth - F, Il, WV; > X. strumarium - F, WV; > X. globosum Shull - Il; > X. inflexum Mackenzie & Bush - Il; > X. speciosum Kearney - Il]
PHENOLOGY: Jul-Nov.
HABITAT: Disturbed ground, roadsides, pastures, barnyards, beaches.
COMMENTS: Nearly cosmopolitan, its original distribution unclear, but probably native to the New World. Various taxa have been recognized (see synonymy); it is unclear that any are usefully distinguished. The most commonly followed recent treatment is that by Cronquist, recognizing two varieties in eastern North America: var. canadense, with burs 2-3.5 cm long, the prickles of the bur with spreading hairs and stipitate glands toward the prickle bases, and var. glabratum (A.P. de Candolle) Cronquist, with burs 1.5-2 cm long, the prickles of the bur nearly glabrous or with short glandular or nonglandular puberulence toward the prickle bases.
RANGE MAP: Xanthium strumarium.png

Key to Map Symbols.

ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Asteraceae Dumortier 1822 or COMPOSITAE Giseke 1792 (Aster Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 1500-1700 genera and 20,000-25,000 species, shrubs, herbs, trees, and vines, cosmopolitan in distribution.
REFERENCE: Cronquist (1980)=SE throughout family treatment.
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Xanthium Linnaeus 1753 (Cocklebur)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 3 species, herbs, cosmopolitan (of somewhat uncertain original distribution).
REFERENCE: Strother in FNA (2006c); Cronquist (1980)=SE.
HERBARIUM RESOURCES
SERNEC: Find Xanthium strumarium in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Xanthium strumarium in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES
USDA: Find Xanthium strumarium in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Xanthium strumarium in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Xanthium strumarium in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Xanthium strumarium

NCBG RECORD
ID IMAGE1: 18304
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 4685
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-02-05

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 4686

Image ID: 4685

Image ID: 4687

Image ID: 4688

Image ID: 12224
6 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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