NCBG North Carolina Botanical Garden

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them

Scientific Name: or show all plants or perform combination search
Plant Family:

Actaea racemosa

Actaea racemosa L.

common black-cohosh, black baneberry, early black-cohosh, bugbane

Actaea racemosa (Common Black-cohosh)
image by Sorrie, Bruce A.

Key to Map Symbols.
NCBG PLANT INDEX
ID_PLANT: ACRA7
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Actaea racemosa
SELECTED SYNONYM: Cimicifuga racemosa
GENUS: Actaea
FAMILY CODE: RANUNC

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES
INTRO: Erect, rhizomatous perennial found in clearings in rich woods, usually on base-rich soils.
STEMS: Stems simple, smooth.
LEAVES: Leaves alternate, petiolate, large and horizontal, 2-3 times ternately divided into 20-70 sharply pointed and coarsely toothed leaflets.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in a tapering, erect spike, to 1 ft. long, on a tall, leafless, sometimes branched stalk held above foliage; white, to 1/2 in. wide, with 5 sepals that drop early, numerous bushy white stamens and a single style; flowers open in succession upward, so raceme remains in bloom for 2 weeks or more.
FRUITS: Fruit an oval, firm-walled follicle.
COMMENTS: Flowers attract pollinators with a sour, musky smell.
HEIGHT: 3-8 ft.

NCBG DURATION
ANNUAL: 0
BIENNIAL: 0
PERENNIAL: 1

NCBG HABIT
HERB: 1
SUBSHRUB: 0
SHRUB: 0
TREE: 0
CACTUS/SUCCULENT: 0
GRASS/GRASSLIKE: 0
FERN: 0
VINE: 0

NCBG LEAF ARRANGEMENT
ALTERNATE: 1
OPPOSITE: 0
WHORLED: 0
BASAL: 0
FASCICLED: 0

NCBG LEAF COMPLEXITY
SIMPLE: 0
PINNATE: 0
BI-PINNATE: 0
TRI-PINNATE: 0
PALMATE: 0
TRIFOLIOLATE: 0

NCBG LEAF RETENTION
DECIDUOUS: 0
EVERGREEN: 0
SEMI-EVERGREEN: 0

NCBG DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

NCBG FLORAL SYMMETRY
RADIAL (ACTINOMORPHIC): 0
BILATERAL (ZYGOMORPHIC): 0
MIXED (BOTH ACTINOMORPHIC and ZYGOMORPHIC): 0

NCBG PHENOLOGY
bloom_time: May-Aug
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x
bloom_color: White
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

fruit_time:

NCBG PLANT SALE
PLANT SALE TEXT: Perfect for the back of a shade border or woodland garden, this native perennial develops overtime into a mound of dense, compound foliage accented by tall wand-like white blossoms in mid-to-late summer. The flowers attract pollinators with a sour, musky smell. Actaea racemosa blooms earlier than its cousins in the genus Actaea and prefers rich, humusy, moisture-retentive soil. Its leaves will scorch if the soil is allowed to dry out too much. This is an excellent pollen and nectar source for pollinators.

Cultural Notes:

Bee Friendly: 1
Butterfly Friendly: 1
Bird Friendly: 1
Hummingbird Friendly: 0

SOIL MOISTURE:
Soil Dry: 0
Soil Average: 1
Soil Moist/Wet: 1
Soil Well-drained: 0

LIGHT EXPOSURE
Sun: 0
Part Shade: 1
Shade: 1

MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 8

GERMINATION CODE:

NCBG RECORD
ID IMAGE: 9840
ID IMAGE2: 9839
ID IMAGE3: 19494
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2017-11-16

USDA PLANTS DATABASE
USDA Symbol: ACRA7
USDA Common Name: Black Baneberry
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV), CAN (ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

STATE RANKS
STATE RANK: S4 (S4)
GLOBAL RANK: G4
STATE STATUS:
US STATUS:
TRACKED STATUS: N: Do not track

WEAKLEY FLORA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Actaea racemosa
COMMON NAME: Common Black-cohosh, Early Black-cohosh, Bugbane
SYNONYMY: [= K3, Mo, Pa, Va; = Cimicifuga racemosa (Linnaeus) Nuttall - C, F, FNA, RAB, S, W; >< C. racemosa var. cordifolia (Pursh) Gray - F, misapplied in part; > C. racemosa var. racemosa - F; < C. racemosa - G (also see C. rubifolia); > Actaea racemosa Linnaeus var. racemosa - K1, Z; > Actaea racemosa Linnaeus var. dissecta (A. Gray) J. Compton - K1, Z]
PHENOLOGY: May-Aug
HABITAT: Rich cove forests, other mesic and moderately to very fertile forests.
COMMENTS: Primarily Appalachian: w. MA south to SC and c. GA, but extending e. into the Coastal Plain and west to OH, IN, and MO. Var. dissecta appears to be a sporadically occurring form, apparently always occurring in small numbers associated with typical material; McCoy (2004) reports its collection in NC.
RANGE MAP: Actaea racemosa.png

ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ranunculaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Buttercup Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009).
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Actaea Linnaeus 1753 (Baneberry)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 28 species, perennial herbs, of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Compton, Culham, & Jury (1998) support the inclusion of Cimicifuga in Actaea, based on morphologic and molecular analyses.
REFERENCE: Ford in FNA (1997); Ramsey in FNA (1997); Compton, Culham, & Jury (1998)=Z; Park & Lee 1996); Ramsey (1987, 1988); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
HERBARIUM RESOURCES
SERNEC: Find Actaea racemosa in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Actaea racemosa in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES
USDA: Find Actaea racemosa in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Actaea racemosa in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Actaea racemosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Actaea racemosa

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 7799

Image ID: 24454

Image ID: 20707

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Image ID: 19266

Image ID: 9839

Image ID: 8506

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Image ID: 8504

Image ID: 8503

Image ID: 7800

Image ID: 19494

Image ID: 26709

Image ID: 26710

Image ID: 26711
16 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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