NCBG North Carolina Botanical Garden

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them. - J.R.R. Tolkien

Scientific Name: or show all plants or perform combination search
Plant Family:

Acorus calamus

Acorus calamus L.

european sweetflag, calamus, european calamus

Acorus calamus (European Sweetflag)
image by Sorrie, Bruce A.
NCBG PLANT INDEX
ID_PLANT: ACCA4
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Acorus calamus
GENUS: Acorus
FAMILY: ACORAC - Acoraceae (Calamus Family)

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES
INTRO: Stemless perennial found in marshes, wet meadows and other wet areas. Native of Eurasia, but now widespread in e. North America
STEMS: Flowering stalk and leaves arise from a thick underground rhizome.
LEAVES: Leaves 2-ranked and crowded basally, where they attach directly to the rhizome; linear and strap-like, to 70 in. long, with a prominent pink or red central vein and “crinkled” margins.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers crowded in a stiff, linear-cylindric spike (2-4 in. long) that is attached at an angle near the middle of a long, leaf-like stem; greenish-yellow (later brownish), tiny.
FRUITS:
COMMENTS: Crushed leaves and rhizomes have a distinctive sweet smell; traditional uses of the rhizome range from medicinal to candy-making.
HEIGHT: 1-3 1/2 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Basal
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: May-Jun
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x

BLOOM COLOR: Greenish-yellow
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Aquatic
NATIVE RANGE: Europe & Asia

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE:
LIGHT EXPOSURE:
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
USDA Symbol: ACCA4
USDA Common Name: Calamus
Native Status: L48 (I), CAN (I)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV), CAN (MB, NB, NS, ON, PE, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: OBL OBL OBL OBL OBL OBL OBL

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
WEAKLEY FLORA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Acorus calamus
COMMON NAME: European Calamus, Sweetflag
SYNONYMY: [= FNA, K, Pa, Va; < A. calamus Linnaeus - C, F, G, GW, RAB; < A. americanus - W]
PHENOLOGY: May-Jun.
HABITAT: Marshes, wet meadows, other wet areas; native of Eurasia, now widespread in e. North America.
COMMENTS: The aromatic rhizome and leaves have been used medicinally and candied as a confection. Populations of A. calamus in our area are apparently sterile triploids introduced from Europe, though diploid and tetraploid populations of A. calamus are known from Asia.
RANGE MAP: Acorus calamus.png

Key to Map Symbols.

ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Acoraceae Martinov 1820 (Calamus Family)
SUMMARY: The family consists only of Acorus, a genus of 2-4 species, perennial herbs. Although traditionally treated as part of the Araceae, a wide variety of morphological, anatomical, and embryological evidence supports the segregation of the Acoraceae (Grayum 1987), a segregation additionally supported by molecular studies (Duvall et al. 1993; Chase et al. 1993). The spathe in Acorus is not morphologically equivalent to the spathe of the Araceae.
REFERENCE: Thompson in FNA (2000); Bogner & Mayo in Kubitzki (1998b).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Acorus Linnaeus 1753 (Calamus, Sweetflag)
SUMMARY: A genus of 2-4 species, perennial herbs, widespread in north temperate and subtropical regions.
REFERENCE: Thompson in FNA (2000); Grayum 1987; Haines (2000).
HERBARIUM RESOURCES
SERNEC: Find Acorus calamus in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Acorus calamus in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES
USDA: Find Acorus calamus in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Acorus calamus in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Acorus calamus in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Acorus calamus

NCBG RECORD
ID IMAGE1: 9835
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 0
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-09-13

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 9834

Image ID: 10512
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