One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them. - J.R.R. Tolkien
Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.
fraser fir, southern balsam, she balsam
Synonym(s): Pinus fraseri
NCBG PLANT INDEX
image by Hardin, J.W.
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Abies fraseri
FAMILY: PINACE - Pinaceae (Pine Family)
BLOOM TIME: May-Jun
FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Nov.
NATIVE RANGE: VA, NC, TN
Plant Sale Text:
Bloom Table Text:
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
USDA PLANTS DATABASE
USDA Symbol: ABFR
USDA Common Name: Fraser Fir
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (GA, NC, TN, VA)
Growth Habit: Tree
NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
|Status:|| FACU || FACU |
2018 Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species of North Carolina
This information is derived from the 2018 North Carolina Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species.
|NHP ID||S RANK||ROUNDED S RANK||G RANK||ROUNDED G RANK||STATE STATUS||FEDERAL STATUS|
|15245|| S2 || S2 || G2 || G2 || W5 |
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Abies fraseri
COMMON NAME: Fraser Fir, She Balsam, Southern Balsam
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, K, RAB, S, Tn, Va, W, WV, Y, Z; = A. balsamea (Linnaeus) P. Miller var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach]
PHENOLOGY: May-Jun; Sep-Nov.
HABITAT: High elevation forests, from about 1500-2037 m.
COMMENTS: Southern Appalachian endemic, from Grayson and Smyth counties, VA (notably, Mount Rogers) south to e. TN and sw. NC; naturalizing on Brasstown Bald in GA, where planted. This species is threatened as a native species by a virulent alien pest, the balsam woolly adelgid, and environmental damage caused by pollution. Populations on Mt. Rogers and, to a lesser extent, Roan and Grandfather mountains, appear to be relatively healthy. A. fraseri is closely related to the northern Balsam Fir, A. balsamea, and may be a relatively recent derivative of it. During the 1970s and 1980s, the cultivation of Fraser Fir Christmas trees became an important part of the economy of the North Carolina mountains (especially Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Mitchell, and Watauga counties). Most Christmas tree plantations are at 1000-1500 m in elevation; below 1000 m, Fraser Fir is very susceptible to a fungal root rot (Phytophthora), above 1500 m it grows too slowly to be profitable and is often flagged by winds, ruining its shape for commercial purposes.
RANGE MAP: Abies fraseri.png
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Pinaceae Sprengel ex F. Rudolphi 1830 (Pine Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 12 genera and about 220 species, trees and shrubs, almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.
REFERENCE: Thieret in FNA (1993b); Price (1989)=Z; Page in Kramer & Green (1990).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Abies P. Miller 1754 (Fir)
SUMMARY: [contributed by Alan S. Weakley and Derick B. Poindexter]
REFERENCE: Hunt in FNA (1993b); Liu (1971)=Y; Page in Kramer & Green (1990).
SERNEC: Find Abies fraseri in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Abies fraseri in
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
USDA: Find Abies fraseri in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Abies fraseri in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Abies fraseri in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Abies fraseri
ID IMAGE1: 5370
ID IMAGE2: 5368
ID IMAGE3: 5370
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-12-06
From the Image Gallery
Image ID: 5368
Image ID: 5369
Image ID: 10501
photo(s) available in the Image Gallery
©2018 - NCBG