NCBG North Carolina Botanical Garden

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Plant Family:

Abies fraseri

Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.

Fraser Fir, Southern Balsam, She Balsam

Synonym(s): Pinus fraseri
Abies fraseri (Fraser Fir)
image by Hardin, J.W.

Key to Map Symbols.
NCBG PLANT INDEX
ID_PLANT: ABFR
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Abies fraseri
SELECTED SYNONYM:
GENUS: Abies
FAMILY CODE: PINACE

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES
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NCBG DURATION
ANNUAL: 0
BIENNIAL: 0
PERENNIAL: 1

NCBG HABIT
HERB: 0
SUBSHRUB: 0
SHRUB: 0
TREE: 1
CACTUS/SUCCULENT: 0
GRASS/GRASSLIKE: 0
FERN: 0
VINE: 0

NCBG DISTRIBUTION
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NCBG PLANT SALE
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Cultural Notes:

Bee Friendly: 0
Butterfly Friendly: 0
Bird Friendly: 0
Hummingbird Friendly: 0

SOIL MOISTURE:
Soil Dry: 0
Soil Average: 0
Soil Moist/Wet: 0
Soil Well-drained: 0

LIGHT EXPOSURE
Sun: 0
Part Shade: 0
Shade: 0

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NCBG PHENOLOGY
bloom_time: May-Jun.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
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bloom_color:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
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fruit_time: Sep-Nov.

NCBG RECORD
ID IMAGE: 5370
ID IMAGE2: 5368
ID IMAGE3: 5370
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2017-01-09

USDA PLANTS DATABASE
USDA Symbol: ABFR
USDA Common Name: Fraser Fir
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (GA, NC, TN, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
STATE RANKS
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WEAKLEY FLORA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Abies fraseri
COMMON NAME: Fraser Fir, She Balsam, Southern Balsam
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, K, RAB, S, Tn, Va, W, WV, Y, Z; = A. balsamea (Linnaeus) P. Miller var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach]
PHENOLOGY: May-Jun; Sep-Nov.
HABITAT: High elevation forests, from about 1500-2037 m.
COMMENTS: Southern Appalachian endemic, from Grayson and Smyth counties, VA (notably, Mount Rogers) south to e. TN and sw. NC; naturalizing on Brasstown Bald in GA, where planted. This species is threatened as a native species by a virulent alien pest, the balsam woolly adelgid, and environmental damage caused by pollution. Populations on Mt. Rogers and, to a lesser extent, Roan and Grandfather mountains, appear to be relatively healthy. A. fraseri is closely related to the northern Balsam Fir, A. balsamea, and may be a relatively recent derivative of it. During the 1970s and 1980s, the cultivation of Fraser Fir Christmas trees became an important part of the economy of the North Carolina mountains (especially Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Mitchell, and Watauga counties). Most Christmas tree plantations are at 1000-1500 m in elevation; below 1000 m, Fraser Fir is very susceptible to a fungal root rot (Phytophthora), above 1500 m it grows too slowly to be profitable and is often flagged by winds, ruining its shape for commercial purposes.
RANGE MAP: Abies fraseri.png

ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Pinaceae Sprengel ex F. Rudolphi 1830 (Pine Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 12 genera and about 220 species, trees and shrubs, almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.
REFERENCE: Thieret in FNA (1993b); Price (1989)=Z; Page in Kramer & Green (1990).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Abies P. Miller 1754 (Fir)
SUMMARY: [contributed by Alan S. Weakley and Derick B. Poindexter]
REFERENCE: Hunt in FNA (1993b); Liu (1971)=Y; Page in Kramer & Green (1990).
HERBARIUM RESOURCES
SERNEC: Find Abies fraseri in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Abies fraseri in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES
USDA: Find Abies fraseri in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Abies fraseri in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Abies fraseri in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Abies fraseri

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 5368

Image ID: 5369

Image ID: 10501
4 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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